Speakers talk about importance of research, Literature search, Research Ethics, Sampling techniques and Medial Writing


 Workshop on Research Methodology at KIMS Malir Cantt

Speakers talk about importance of research,
Literature search, Research Ethics, Sampling
techniques and Medial Writing

From our correspondent

KARACHI: Karachi Institute of Medical Sciences (KIMS) Malir Cantt one of the newly established medical colleges by Pakistan Army organized a Workshop on Research Methodology at KIMS Campus on August 29th 2017. It was attended by Lecturers and Assistant Professor of KIMS while Associate and Professors participated as observers. Some Consultants from the Combined Military Hospital Malir Cantt were also present. The main initiative for the workshop was taken by Prof. Seema Mumtaz and her team and the facilitators included some faculty members of KIMS besides Mr. Shaukat Ali Jawaid Chief Editor of Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences who is also Secretary of Eastern Mediterranean Association of Medical Editors (EMAME) who was also the Chief Guest on this occasion.

Brig. Ashfaq Director Administration KIMS in his welcome address welcomed all the participants and the facilitators. Brig. Aneel Aslam Principal of KIMS in his inaugural address highlighted the importance of the workshop which will help the participants in understanding how to plan and conduct research and write scientific papers. KIMS, he said, was planning to start its own Journal and urged the faculty members to contribute their manuscripts to this journal. He also welcomed the consultants from CMH and urged the KIMS faculty members to attend and participate in academic activities organizes at CMH as we are one institution and knowledge sharing between the faculty should be encouraged. He specially thanked Mr. Shaukat Ali Jawaid and hoped that he will continue to extend help and assistance in training of postgraduates and faculty in the art of medical writing. Mr. Shaukat Ali Jawaid thanked the Principal and his team for the invitation and also presented some of his books on Medical Writing besides Proceedings of two international conferences on Medical Editing and EMMJ5 Medical Journals Conference besides his personal autobiography “The Plight of a Medical Editor” for the KIMS Library. Brig. Aneel Aslam also announced that Prof. Farhan Essa has joined KIMS as a visiting faculty member which was greeted by the workshop participants.

Shaukat Ali Jawaid Chief Editor Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences and Secretary EMAME was
the chief guest at the Workshop on Research Methodology organized by Karachi Institute of
Medical Sciences recently. Photograph on left shows Brig. Aneel Aslam Principal KIMS presenting
a memento to Mr. Shaukat Ali Jawaid on this occasion while on right Mr. Shaukat Ali Jawaid is
presenting a few of his books on Medical Writing to Brig. Aneel Aslam for the KIMS library.

Prof. Seema Mumtaz in her presentation discussed in detail what is research and why it was important. She also talked about qualitative and quantitative research, experimental and analytical studies, importance of study design and issues commonly faced during data collection.

Dr. Adnan talked about how to select a research topic, its feasibility, how to make research objective and hypothesis, importance of sampling techniques and sample size. Some of the importance databases for literature search mentioned included PubMed, PubMed Central/ Medline, Google Scholar.  Books, scientific journals and their website, Scopus and different other sources. Talking about sampling techniques Dr. Adnan said that in probable sampling everybody has an equal chance of being included while in non-probability sampling it is not the case. In Random sampling everybody has a chance of selection. Some of these sampling methods, techniques are simple and do not require much funding. Open epi is one of the software which can be used for sample selection.

Brig. Aneel Aslam Principal Karachi Institute of Medical Sciences (KIMS) a newly established medical college by
Pakistan Army at Malir Cantt Karachi presenting mementoes to Brig. Ashfaq Director Administration,
Dr. Farhan
Essa, Dr.Shamsul Arfeen, Dr. Adnan, Dr. Farhan, Dr. Tahira Zameer and Dr. Nuzhat the facilitators
at the workshop on Research Methodology organized by KIMS on August 29th at its Campus.

Dr. Farhan discussed literature search. The Wild Card technique can be used to do literature search which will cover both English and American English language wherein there are different spellings for different words by just putting question mark in place where different spelling are used. The use of words And Or is also helpful. While doing literature search, it was emphasized that one should prefer PubMed and Google Scholar as PubMed does not include all the scientific journals particularly from the developing countries. References from the last five years should be preferred.

Dr.Nuzhat Aisha Akram discussed study tools, different software’s available. Questionnaire based  data collection tool is convenience, less expensive, less time consuming but it also has limited application and at times the response rate may not be good enough.

Dr. Shamsul Arfeen spoke about research ethics, talked about ethical issues involved in research, highlighted various Guidelines. He also covered informed consent, privacy and confidentiality, plagiarism; different software’s which are now available to screen manuscripts for plagiarism. He also highlighted the importance of protecting the patient information and consequences of plagiarism which could spoil the career of those who are found involved in plagiarism.

Mr. Shaukat Ali Jawaid Chief Editor Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences and Secretary Eastern Mediterranean
Association of Medical Editors (EMAME) presenting certificates to some of the participants of the
workshop on Research Methodology organized by KIMS on August 29th at its Campus.

Dr. Farhan Essa in his speech emphasized the importance of collaboration between different institutions. He advised the KIMS administration to collaborate with outside institutions, organizations which will help this young medical institution tremendously.  Paper writing is extremely important and postgraduates as well as faculty should learn this art. Research, he further stated, must benefit our own community. For this the researchers should look at our own problems and try to find a solution which will benefit the community.

Dr. Tahira Zameer discussed different types of medical writing which includes Letters to the Editor, Case Reports, Original Articles, Reviews, Special and Short Communications, Clinical Case series, Dissertations and Thesis and so on. Case report, she opined, should cover management of some unusual and odd case. Original articles are the largest quantity of manuscripts which are published by the medical journals. Reviews cover information from different studies on the same subject.

Mr. Shaukat Ali Jawaid in his first presentation talked about basic principles of Medical Writing and emphasized that the objective of writing is to communicate a message. Hence, try to do it simply, concisely, effectively and in an interesting style. Remember one should never use vague statements and each and every statement in scientific writing has to be properly references. Use simple language, short sentences and never start a new sentence with the world And ant But. Do not forget to mention time and place of the study and always include a publication strategy while conducting research because if it is not published, no one is going to accept it and it will be termed as it has never happened.


Mr. Shaukat Ali Jawaid Chief Editor Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences and Secretary EMAME along with 
Dr. Farhan Essa presenting certificates to Brig. Mubushra and Lt. Col. Bushra Iftikhar at the Workshop 
on Research Methodology organized by KIMS recently.

His second presentation was on How to Write a Scientific Paper? He first talked about Structured Abstract which should be in four headings i.e. Objective, Methods, Results and Conclusions followed by appropriate Key Words. The maximum words in structured abstract should be between 250-300. Abstract should give main highlight of the study and the findings. Never use abbreviations in the title and while selecting the topic do think whether you will be able to recruit, enroll the desired number of patients in the time period at your disposal.  It must also be seen that if it requires expensive investigations, who will pay for this or do you have the required funding for conducting this study.

Introduction should cover what information is available on the subject, what are the gaps, what is the rational of your study and then briefly restate your objective.  After literature search you might get lot of studies but one should be intelligent enough to select more recent and relevant studies which should be referred in the Introduction. Usually the Introduction should have about five to six or at the most one third of the whole references.

Methodology is the most important and the manuscript will swim and sink on the strength of this section. It should give minute details how the study was conducted. It should contain number of patients enrolled, gender, age, inclusion and exclusion criteria, how randomization was done, how the groups were formed, what drugs were used in what dose, details of the solution how it was prepared if it was used, Ethics Committee/IRB approval of the study which is very important as most of the good quality standard journals do not accept manuscripts for publication if they are not accompanied by EC approval. If some standard method is used, one can just give its reference but if not, then one has to give all the details so that others can replicate the study. How the data was analyzed and what software was used should also be mentioned in detail.

Brig. Mubushra presenting certificates to participants of Workshop on Research Methodology 
held at KIMS on August 29th 2017.

Results section should give findings of the study. One can give information in Tables or in figures to highlight certain things. Do not repeat the information given in tables, figures in the text. Figures and Tables should give the information in standalone positon and the reader should not need to refer to the text.

While writing Discussion, first briefly summarize the findings of your study and then compare your results with local, National, regional and international studies. Similarities and differences in findings both are important. Most of the references will come in this section. If the results are different, try to find out the reason for these differences. There may be difference in inclusion and exclusion criteria, sampling technique, there could be cultural and dietary differences. Highlight what information your study has added to the medical literature and what was still not known. Call for more research and do not forget to mention Limitations of your study which will be considered a positive point and enhance the chances of your manuscripts acceptance. Make sure to mention about conflict of interest, source of funding, do not forget to arrange Ethics Committee approval and processing fee if it is required. Be mindful of the length of the manuscript which must be in accordance to the journal requirements to which you wish to submit your manuscript. Do not get frustrated if it is rejected; try to improve it in the light of reviewers comments and suggestions. Peer Review is meant to act as a barrier to spread of wrong information.  Getting a paper published is just like playing the Publication Game, play with a positive mind to win, follow the basic principles and rules of this game which are carefully reading and following the instructions for authors of the journal to which you wish to submit your manuscript. Remember high rejection rate of a Journal does not mean high standard and Impact Factor is one of the yard sticks and not the only one to judge the standard of a journal. Reviewers act as advisors, they are not the decision makers. The final decision to accept or reject a manuscript lies with the Editor who is eventually responsible for protecting and safeguarding the integrity and credulity of his journal, Mr. Shaukat Ali Jawaid concluded.

Later along with Brig. Ashfaq, Brig. Aneel Aslam and Prof. Seema Mumtaz, Dr. Farhan Essa, Mr. Shaukat Ali Jawaid presented mementoes among the facilitators, faculty members and the participants of the workshop.

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