“Journey Through Medicine”


Book Review

“Journey Through Medicine”

by Prof. Lt. Gen. M. Afzal Najeeb

KARACHI: Healthcare professionals in general and medical teachers in particular who have remained involved in administration occupying important coveted positions come across lot of incidents, interesting episodes in their professional career which if shared provide an excellent opportunity to learn. That is why I have always encouraged doctors to document it but not many seems to be interested.  We can learn a lot from all this if it is documented and published but usually there is a tendency to put everything under the carpet and try to forget, something which needs to be discouraged. It is in this context that one would like to commend the efforts of Lt. Gen. (Retd) Prof. M. Afzal Najeeb who served as Chairman and Dean of Sheikh Zayed Federal Postgraduate Medical Institute at Lahore and later as Executive Director of NICVD at Karachi who has recently published recollections of his professional career in the army as well as in the civil administration.

Prof. M. Afzal Najeeb

As the author himself writes, it is not an autobiography in the real sense but he has given a detailed account of what he felt, observed and saw throughout his career in the army while posted at various stations and in the public sector institutions. He has also tried to document the intrigues, unethical medical practices, corruption in health services, how one gets and is denied opportunities in the army medical Corps at length. It is the right connections with those in power everywhere which matters and merit is seldom given much importance that is the real tragedy of this Nation where it is the mediocre who flourish and prosper and the competent, talented people who are denied opportunities remain neglected and get frustrated.

This book can be divided into three parts, first dealing with the historical background, second his early college days in King Edward Medical College, service in army and postgraduate studies in UK while the third part deals with his stay at Sheikh Zayed Hospital Lahore and NICVD at Karachi. While the book has lot of information, some known facts have been reconfirmed besides throwing light on certain other issues but the major deficiency in the book pertains to the lack of references and an Index. In today’s era of evidence based practice, it is important that whatever is written is properly referenced to enhance its authenticity and credibility but in this case, one has to trust the author as no references have been provided. Similarly, Index at the end of a book is considered mandatory which helps in easy identification of people, institutions discussed in the book which is also missing.  In the review I have tried t quote him from the book where necessary.

Writing about the historical background about Medicine, Prof. Afzal Najeeb says that” Hydrotherapy was being practiced as healing arts since long and Acupuncture  introduced before 2500 BC is being used all over the world as an alternate therapy in anesthesia, relief of pain and a variety of other situations. Traditional medicine is being taught in medical schools as part of curriculum and it still remains mainstay of treatment in rural China. Demo cedes known as the most skillful physician of his time was attached to the Court of Persian King Darius whom he treated along with his wife as well as the daughter of Cyrus the Great. The last great name in Greek medicine was Galen a philosopher physician. The first human dissection is said to have been performed at famous museum in Alexandria.

Evidence Based Medicine was the idea put forward by Ibne Sina the great Muslim physician. Development of hospitals began in 8th century when Haroon al Rashid built the first hospital in Baghdad. This was followed by hospital Ahmad Ibne Tulum Hospital Cairo, Al-Qayrwan Hospital in Tunisia, Al-Mansoor Hospital Cairo, and Nuri Hospital Damascus were all state of the art hospitals university level teaching institutions which provided free OPD and indoor treatment including rehabilitation. Salerno in Southern Italy is said to be the oldest organized medical school university. Royal College of Physicians London was granted Royal Charter in 1518.Technological advances in investigative and therapeutic procedures have raised the expenditure on health tremendously. Globalization, Prof. Afzal Najeeb feels should be for the good of humanity as a whole and not for economic colonization and profiteering of the dispossessed nations.

He also recalls that at a time when Universities and Centers of Excellence were being established at Cambridge, Oxford and all over Europe, Mughal rulers in Indo Pakistan sub-continent were busy in building palaces and monuments for themselves and their queens totally oblivious of the wave of renaissance sweeping over Europe. First medial school was opened in Calcutta in 1835 followed by one in Lahore in 1860.Bhore Commission Report issued two years before independence was a comprehensive and detailed treatise on the status of existing health conditions and advice for the future. Over two thousand NGOs are working in healthcare. Some susceptible individual’s organizations are recruited by foreign intelligence security agencies to further their agenda.  The involvement of Dr. Shakil Afridi in tracing Osama Bin Laden has proved it right. Quackery can only be abolished if reasonably affordable easily accessible and effective health delivery system is universally available. Pakistan still does not have a National Formulary. National Pharma industry is well-established and has done commendable job but there are certain black sheep’s and here he also refers to the PIC tragedy in Lahore which cost over one hundred fifty precious lives.MNCs, Prof. Afzal Najib says, proclaim lofty ethical standards but do not often measure up to them. 

Medicine as a profession, Prof. Afzal Najib writes was not my choice.  I wanted to study philosophy literature and become a teacher. Career planning was determined by parental counseling. He had early education at famous Murray College Sialkot. It was in those days that Allama Iqbal got Knighthood. Feeling unhappy with Iqbal accepting this title Abdul Majid Salick eminent journalist, writer and poet taunted him in the following verse.

Iqbal has surrendered at the threshold of the Government

At Murray College, he recalls there was Co-education. Absenteeism and disciplinary lapses were uncommon. Girl student’s number was small, they could socialize with each other but they were dressed modestly in Shalwar Qamiz and Dopatta on their heads but not on their faces. Abayas, Jeans and Tights had not made their appearance. The girl students used to be very conservative and kept their own company. No interference of political parties and no religious group in college affairs was allowed. In those days a physician when called for a house visit felt obliged to make an unsolicited free call in the evening or next morning and ensured a follow up of the patient until full recovery. Healthcare providers adhered to professional code of ethics characterized by humanness and compassion, money being a secondary consideration.

He got admission to King Edward Medial College in 1949 and there were ninety boys and ten girls in the class. It was first named as Lahore Medical College established in 1860 and was the Third in line after Calcutta and Bombay. It was renamed after King Edward in 1911.Exemplary commitment was seen among  highly qualified  teachers like Ilahi Bakhsh, Amiruddin, Aslam Pirzada, Ghulam Mohammad Baloch, Sardar Ali Shaikh, Ziaullah, Ramzan Ali Syed, Riaz-e-Qadeer,MAH Siddiqi, Sami and Khan Bahadur  Yaqub later joined by brilliant young men like  Ismat Anwar Khurshid, Khawaja Sadiq Hussain and Rauf Yusuf who  were able to maintain century old traditions  of the college.

Prof. Amiruddin, he says,  was the epitome of discipline, used to come to retiring room in Patiala Block a few minutes earlier and will enter class room exact in time. Timetable of ward teaching was strictly adhered to and all faculty members used to be present at the campus from9-4 PM. Assistant professor took regular night rounds, Professors used to conduct OPDs themselves. Col Ellahi Bakhsh and Pirzada, Prof. Afzal Najib says became my idols, former excelled in therapeutic while later was an accomplished diagnostician because of their earlier background in pharmacology and pathology respectively. It was a treat to listen to Pirzada and students used to skip other classes to attend his lectures. Ilahi Bakhsh used to offer provisional diagnosis just after looking at the patient and he used to be correct in more than half the cases.  History and physical examination was given too much importance.

Sightseeing tour of the neighboring Hira Mandi famous for its singing girls, he recalls, was usual for the male students. Prof. Amiruddin provided free food and financial assistance quietly to the indigent patients in his ward. He donated a ward in the Dept. of pediatric surgery when he retired. Ziaullah gave free consultations to poor patients in the clinic at his residence on every Friday afternoon. His jokes in the class at times could become dirty if there were no female around. Pirzada was a clinician par excellence. He had sarcastic sense of humor. Teachers were allowed private practice at their residence. Col. Ilahi Bakhsh used to write different prescription for poor and the rich patients on the plea that the rich patient will not be satisfied with inexpensive medicines. Prof. MAH Siddiqui who had migrated from Agra Medical College was a renowned anatomist. He later switched over to surgery since he had FRCS from UK.

Problems at KEMC: Generally harmonious atmosphere at college was vitiated by an ongoing rivalry between Col. SMK Malik DGHS who aspired to be Principal of KEMC and Col. Ilahi Bakhsh who both belonged to IMS. Faculty was divided into two groups, the migrants from Amritsar supporting Col. Malik.  It tricked down to the student and some favorites of Col. Malik   kept on creating trouble from time to time. An attempt to organize strike failed but eventually Col. Malick did succeed in getting the post of Principal KEMC but his tenure was short lived as Col. Ilahi Bakhsh was restored as Principal within six months.  He also recalls attending Dares-e-Quran by Maulana Abu Ale Maududi in a mosque in Islamia Park.

Prof. Afzal Najib has also reported that the gossip surrounding breakdown of ambulance carrying the dying Quaid-e Azam from Mauripur airfield to Governor General House in Karachi on hot summer day was unfounded. But what is the source of his information is not mentioned. According to him it was an accidental mechanical failure of an antiquated most uncomfortable three ton truck used as an ambulance car during the forties. Incidentally its modern version carrying another founding father Nelson Mandela from Johannesburg to a Hospital in Pretoria had also failed on the way causing forty minute delay exposing him to chilly weather.

After graduation, he says, I opted for compulsory three years’ service in army in 1951 instead of rural service.  I used to pay frequent visit to Ghora Gali which provided me an opportunity to know family and President Ayub Khan as he often spent the weekends with them. He also recalls that once he saw Ayub Khan massaging legs of his pir as he was ill and I was called to examine him. Abu Assar Hafeez Jalandhar who always    accompanied President Ayub Khan as protocol officer often used to come and see me at CMH Muree. During one of his visits, he dropped a hint that some conspiracy was being hatched and then we saw Martial Law was promulgated on 7th October 1958.

Selection for higher studies: I was not selected for postgraduate studies in UK by AMC though I was promised by DG at the time of my regular commission in the Army. However, a junior colleague with no better qualification but superior connections was selected. Information was leaked to me by my friend in Directorate.  I immediately rushed to Pindi, sought interview with DHGMS but to no avail. Instead he offered nine months observer course under USAUD which I declined. I brought it to the notice of President Ayub Khan and when questioned Medical Directorate could not justify its action hence had to reverse the decision. The other officer was marked for the next year.

In UK I worked at National Heart Hospital London. Dr. Paul Wood Director of National Heart Hospital who is known as father of British cardiology when he died had left instructions that he should not be resuscitated in case of cardiac arrest because of the fear of Brian damage which was not uncommon at that time. All the consultants there were great clinicians because technology had not yet overtaken the faculty of direct observation through human senses. The invasion is now almost complete. Auscultation of the heart has gradually become nearly extinct.

Weekly Journal Club was a regular feature in addition to routine Cath conferences. In the libraries reading rooms remained open till late at nights. Some hospital registrars and tutors provided coaching mainly focused on techniques of passing exams of the Royal Colleges. The superiority complex of British Raj days was still lingering in their minds. The younger generation was relatively broadminded and accommodating in those days. The funeral of Sir Winston Churchill the greatest Englishman of the 20th century was a memorable event. At Royal Infirmary Edinburgh Sir James  Cameron first ignored me  for a couple of months while working with him   until I  made chance diagnosis of a rare disease known as Behcet Syndrome in a patient who was an enigma in the ward. In those days pass percentage among foreign candidates in Royal College Exams used to be 10-15 as against fifty among the natives. In those days diagnosis was still largely based on clinical findings.

Prof. Afzal Najib recalls that President Ayub Khan came to London to attend commonwealth Prime Ministers conference in1964.My teacher Sir James was impressed with his personality that in the ward round next morning he  remarked, “Your President was more British than Sir Alec who was with him on the BBC panel discussion and he had overshadowed everyone.”However, his photograph showing him swimming with a society girl Christin Keeler at a house party did not go well with the Pakistani community. She later earned notoriety due to her involvement in a spy scandal known as the Profumo affair which virtually rocked the British Government of the time. In 1965 only three Muslim countries Iran, Indonesia and Turkey gave us unqualified moral and material support.

Five months were still remaining of my two years deputation which I intended to spend at National Heart Hospital when I received marching orders to return to Pakistan. I lodged protest. Lt-Gen. SA Mian was incidentally on a visit to London who appreciated my point of view when I met him at the Pakistan Embassy and allowed me to complete the tenure.

I was staying at Royal Army Medical Corps Mess Milbank as a privilege of being an officer in Pakistan Army. What gratified me most was the pleasure derived from the sight of an English batman shining my shoes in the morning and while tipping him every month with a bottle of liquor and some cigarettes which I purchased on diplomatic discount through the embassy.

Recalling a mishap at CMH Quetta, Prof. Afzal Najib says that a senior officer was given Penicillin injection by the unit medical officer in his living room in the officer’s mess apparently without a skin test. He died without adequate emergency treatment. The MO was found guilty of dereliction of duty and was sent on compulsory release. In those days it was not unusual to find young officers flirt with hospital nurses but it was rather surprising to come across such a behaviour in a senior officer. During an evening round I found a JCO who later I came to know was a Brigadier and retired as Lt. Gen. who had come after a young hospital maid. He was known for such escapades. During a brief stint of service in Saudi Arabia, I noticed that the Pakistani community was known as Miskins.

Opportunity Denied: I had applied for Rhodes Foundation scholarship for PhD. The medical Dept. thought it was of no use hence was not interested as they thought it will have no benefit for the army. The offer lapsed. In the meantime I was offered the post of Prof. of Pharmacology at Armed Forces Medical College which I declined because I did not want to switch over to non-clinical specialty. I also served for some time in Kharian CMH. I escorted Manzur Qadir former foreign minister to London who was operated at Guys hospital but could not survive.

The distinguishing feature of the military health service Prof. Afzal Najib writes is its superb organization and better administration.  It has the distinction of being only one in the country providing universal health coverage during war and peace to all categories of defense personnel, their families and parents. However, after the departure of Gen. W. A. Burki, who did not like any interference from non-medical hierarchy, powers started slipping out of the hands of medical directorate. The terms of reference and conduct of medical services were dictated by non-medicals who also initiated the annual confidential report of AMC officers which caused great indignation among them. Intramural conflict in the Corps itself was also cause of frustration, the specialists who had attained ranks higher than the generalist commanding offices resented the arrangement.

At the cross roads: Two decades spent in the AMC could not be considered as highly satisfactory period from the jobs satisfaction point of view. Increasing bureaucratic interference was becoming a constant irritant. My aim of pursuing academic career, Prof. Afzal Najib writes was not being fulfilled. I started for looking alternative opening. A precedent was set by the deputation of Brig. M. A Z Mohyudin later Lt. Gen. who was posted as Director of Medicine and Professor at newly established Postgraduate Medial Institute at Lahore. This prompted me to try as well and after lot of hurdles in the GHQ and Government of Punjab, my secondment to PGMI as Director of Clinical Medicine was agreed to by both the parties.

Lahore General Hospital was built as a beggar’s home but later converged to health facility to accommodate over flow of patients at Mayo Hospital with its Dept. of neurosurgery. PGMI was a temporary arrangement till the completion of Shaikh Zayed Hospital Lahore. Brig. MAZ Mohyudin and I, Prof. Afzal Najib says,   were unwelcome intruders occupying two senior posts at Lahore. It was construed as a revival of an earlier attempt by Gen Burki to create a superior medical service. It met with serious hostility from the civil side. It is a well-known fact that there is not only great resentment but hatred for lateral entry in public sector healthcare establishments.  It will be worth noting that when Prof. Naseer Sheikh as DG Health organized a medical education conference at KEMC and invited Brig.MAZ Mohyuddin to chair one of the sessions, everyone in the hall except half a dozen doctors, walked out lead by Prof. Iftikhar Ahmad. Prof. Naseer Sheikh had to rush and pacify people and promised to Prof. Iftikhar that the government will make sure that no one from the AMC is inducted in public sector medical institutions. Had Prof. Afzal Najib known that, he would have imagined the rough time he will face later on following the footsteps of MAZ Mohyuddin.

 PGMI Lahore did not attract permanent staff and proved to be a transit lounge by passengers waiting to move over to more prestigious KEMC or as a dumping ground for those wanting to hang on to Lahore for other reasons. When Lt. Gen. Fazle Haq Governor of NWFP wanted to establish a postgraduate medical institute, at a meeting I asked him was he going to make the same mistake which the Punjab Government has made?.  He asked for further details and that is how he decided that Lady Reading Hospital where PGMI was being established will have a separate teaching cadre and Khyber Medical College will have a separate cadre from the very first day. The teachers were given the choice to join any one of them which was accepted by the teachers very reluctantly. Once Prof. Kabir asked me I do not know who idiot had suggested to the Governor Gen. Fazle Haq to have separate cadre at which I just smiled.

He also recalls that as a Dean of PGMI he had to open tenders for some equipment worth two million rupees. A businessman acquainted with me called on me one day and told me that he was one of the tenderers. He then said if 5% would be alright and seeing a question mark on my face raised the figure to 7% which according to him was the maximum he could offer. I  was naïve enough and cold not understand it which he later explained that it will be my share and it is a usual practice in such deals and was being successfully practice in other institutes. I told him to get lost but later I learnt that our purchase clerk was taking a share in all transactions.

America, Prof. Afzal Najib recalls is a land of surprises. During one of his visits he was asked by his daughter working in the University Hospital in Memphis to accompany her as her guest to a dinner hosted by a Pharma company. The meal served was superb but he was astonished by the desert comprising of a cheque of five hundred dollars dished out to each invitee at the end. “It was a novel experience for me although it was a common practice among the Pharma companies to offer bribesto medical profession in a variety of ways.”

At the NICVD in Karachi: Governor of Punjab Gen. Jeelani Khan wanted me to become project director of PIC which was being established but after retirement of Gen. Shaukat Ali Syed, post of Director at NICVD had become vacant. Search was on for a replacement. President of Pakistan Gen. Ziaul Haque rang me up one morning and wanted me to take up as Deputy Director at NICVD. It did not appeal to me and I expressed my feelings to him. He said it was an interim arrangement and if I am there, you will soon be the Executive Director. Governor Jeelani was not prepared to relieve me but he was told by President to relieve me and hence my fresh deputation to the Federal Health Ministry.

The staff of the NICVD was hostile and remained so for a long time. President kept his promise and I was appointed Director after a few months.  In my first meeting with the faculty I advised them to maintain work discipline, especially punctuality among themselves and their juniors. Some of them who appeared to be hesitant had to be reminded of the terms and conditions of service and the few who did not comply were privately given a choice to state their inability to comply in writing but they backed down. Hence things started improving by virtue of my personal example. Some junior doctors who were working at NICVD for years without improving their qualifications organized protest during President Gen. Zia’s visit to the institute but he upheld my decision. The usual bickering among surgeons over apportioning of time days in the single theater became a source of irritation when a second surgeon joined the team. Paediatric Cardiology Dept. was dong a commendable job because of single minded devotion of its head Dr. Kalilmudidn Aziz. Dr. Haq was another committed professional. But the accounts officer, an old hand turned out to be a crook and was fired for embezzlement in billing. Dept. of nuclear cardiology was established in 1987. Another machine was added through JICA. We wanted to buy more machines and JICA consultant gave us the impression that we had to buy Japanese only although there were no such restrictions in the contract. I insisted on buying from Siemens and it ultimately got through.  Large sum of money in dollars were offered to me during the deal as my commission by the suppliers which I refused.

Some parchis stated appearing on my desk after Malik Noor Hayat Noon became health minister in Gen Zia cabinet. When I brought it to his notice, he said ignore them all. If ever he is interested he will ring me up but he never did during his tenure. During one of the interviews of Medial Officers, a group stormed into my office with a list of candidates they wanted to be selected. I rang up Dr. Farooq Sattar and told him to remove the agitators from the institute premises immediately or else I will be obliged to call the authorities. He complied forthwith. We had many political patients. Once an acting governor of the province stayed in the institute for a few days to avoid taking an undesirable decision for which he was under pressure.

Demise of Gen. Zia brought in PPP government and Health Minister Amir Hyder Kazmi wished that he should be received by the Director at the Airport. I told the Health Secretary that I will do so on his official visit to the Institute only. His next demand was putting a number of his constituency supporters on the payroll of the institute against non-existent posts which too was not feasible. Chairperson of Federal Placement Bureau was annoyed with me because of my failure to comply with her orders to employ an unqualified person against a grade 18 job without advertising the post. She gave an impression that she was acting on behalf of PM Benazir Bhutto but would not send me her written instructions. An influential federal secretary became annoyed because I failed to recommend treatment abroad at state expense for his brother who was heading one of the public sector enterprises since his illness was manageable in the country. Bureaucratic intrigues were started, it was rumored that I was transferred as Director NIH Islamabad which does not need permission from GHQ. I flew to Rawalpindi, met the Chief of Army staff at his residence. It was on the intervention of General Mirza Aslam Baig with Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto who was obviously unaware of the machinations of her government functionaries that my transfer to NIH could not materialize. Kazmi thereafter started destabilizing the institute by creating unrest among lower staff through his party Jiayalas although his demands ceased to bother me anymore. An attempt to organize strike failed miserably but a simmering campaign against me continued till the fall of this regime. Kazmi fled the country and has not been heard again.

Prolonged alienation from the army, Prof. Afzal Najib writes, had deprived him of personal contacts with its hierarchy making him a virtual outcast. As such I was bypassed for promotion to the rank of Major General and my representation was turned down saying it was the turnof a general cadre office and I had not been superseded in my own cadre of specialists. I was promoted six months later.  But again I was bypassed for the next rank this time on the pretext that I had to earn an ACR in the army to qualify for that which was a lame excuse. This decision was reversed by the personal intervention of President Zia as soon as he was apprised of this situation.  He phoned me personally to convey the decision and he died a few days later in plane crash before signing the orders. It took couple of months for his successor Ghulam Ishaq Khan to do so. Prof. Afzal Najib also recalls that Prof. Basharat Jazbi used to escort Director  WHO EMRO which was below dignity of his office and I saw him on one occasion offering a diamond ring to his wife in the VIP lounge of Islamabad Airport with a motive to ensure future WHO assignment.

Chairman Dean of Shaikh Zayed Hospital Federal Postgraduate Medical Institute Prof. Afzal Najib says was hotbed of intrigues. Gen. Mohyudin first Chairman had to leave due to machination of some of them who was replaced with the leader of the gang. Ministry succumbed to the political pressure and allowed the outgoing Chairman to stay as a Professor against my protest. One of the fully furnished Rest Houses of Sheikh Zayed Hospital was being used for “other purposes”.  He recalls that “at a dinner and singing party at his residence my predecessor suggested to me in explicit terms that I should let things lie as they were in the institute and join him in enjoying an evening drink as his guest as and when desired.” This did not surprise me because I was aware of his reputation.

The   lofty vision and mission statements of Trust Hospitals Prof. Afzal Najib opines are hollow platitudes meant for adorning the pages of the brochures. There are no systems. Rules and regulations are bent to suit the interests of the proprietors based on commercial considerations. SOPs and Terms of reference keep on changing according to expediencies. The status of Principals is reduced to dummies and Medical teachers are treated as service providers by non-technical managers.

A candidate having spent to so much money on private medical education will expect a quick return from the investment. The attitude is bound to compromise his professional ethics. Curriculum, Prof. Afzal Najib feels, should also include proficiency in English language, Communication Skills and Information Technology to facilitate speedy acquisition of knowledge. A new career structure, enhancement of emoluments and improvement in working conditions at public sector institutions will be required to compete with the onslaught of the private enterprise. Private sector is corrupting the entire system. OSCE is serving the objective of safeguarding the financial interests of the proprietors of the colleges. Medical teachers in private sector are faced with job insecurity.

Prof. Afzal Najib is not right when he writes that it was a landmark decision by Gen. W.A. Burki to establish the CPSP.  It fact it was the initiative of Col. S.M.K. Malick and  Col. Najib Khan who during the symposium on medical education at Science Conference at Multan had come up with this idea. The constitution of College of Physicians of Pakistan was also prepared in consultation with Lord Rosenheim President of RCP London. They presented this proposal to Gen. WA Burki who was invited as a chief guest who appreciated the idea but finding nothing for the Surgeons, decided to establish College of Physicians & Surgeons Pakistan. This fact has been confirmed by Prof. S.M.K. Wasti who has written the History of CPSP and to me it was personally narrated by Col. Najib Khan. Since Col. Malick and Col. Najib Khan did not like this, Gen. Burki made sure that Col. Najib Khan was not included as a Founder Fellow of the CPSP. Not only that, he was not offered CPSP Fellowship either later on. To improve health delivery services, Prof. Afzal Najib feels that Filter Clinics should be established in major cities for triage for specialty institutions. Teaching hospitals should be relieved of the burden of primary and secondary care.  Part time visiting faculty, non-practicing chairs for Research should be introduced.

In the last part of the book Prof Afzal Najib has also offered his personal comments on the political system and political leadership of Pakistan. Referring to the 1971 tragedy in East Pakistan, he writes that “It was perhaps an irony of fate that all major actors of East Pakistan debacle Yahya Khan, Indri Gandhi, Mujeeb and Bhutto met with tragic ends termed as retribution on earth by some.”

Commenting on the death sentence to Mr. Z. A. Bhutto he writes that “Tragic Hanging of Bhutto rightly called as a judicial murder was the biggest trauma inflicted on the Nation.” He is also very critical of the poor quality of reporting by media. It is heartening to read when he writes that “Motivation for imposition of martial on all the four occasions was in violation of the constitution and did not serve any larger national interest as professed.” Political system, the legislature, the executive, judiciary and the media are all losing their credibility to a varying extent, he maintains.

The 230- page book which is beautifully bound with an impressive cover makes an interesting reading. Published by Dost Publications it is priced Rs.550/-Available from Dost Publications, Plot 110, Street 15, I-9/2, Islamabad. Pakistan. Tel:051-4102784-85. E mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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